By Victor Young
International Labour Organisation, ILO, has said women workers have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, creating a risk that some of the modest progress on gender equality made in recent decades.
ILO also warned of more job losses globally over COVID-19, saying the number of working hours lost across the world in the first half of 2020 was significantly worse than previously estimated.
It decried the highly uncertain recovery in the second half of the year will not be enough to go back to pre-pandemic levels.
The global body in Geneva, Switzerland, warned that even in the best scenario and risks, there will be continuing large scale job losses.
According to the 5th edition of ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work , there was a 14 per cent drop in global working hours during the second quarter of 2020, equivalent to the loss of 400 million full-time jobs (based on a 48-hour working week).
This is a sharp increase on the previous Monitor’s estimate, (issued on May 27), of a 10.7 per cent drop (305 million jobs).
ILO informed that “the new figures reflect the worsening situation in many regions over the past weeks, especially in developing economies.
Regionally, working time losses for the second quarter were Americas (18.3 percent), Europe and Central Asia (13.9 percent), Asia and the Pacific (13.5 percent), Arab States (13.2 percent), and Africa (12.1 percent).
The vast majority of the world’s workers (93 percent) continue to live in countries with some sort of workplace closures, with the Americas experiencing the greatest restrictions. The new Monitor presents three scenarios for recovery in the second half of 2020: baseline, pessimistic and optimistic.
It stresses that the long-term outcome will depend on the future trajectory of the pandemic and government policy choices.
The report said: “The baseline model — which assumes a rebound in economic activity in line with existing forecasts, the lifting of workplace restrictions and recovery in consumption and investment — projects a decrease in working hours of 4.9 percent (equivalent to 140 million full-time jobs) compared to Q4 2019.
“The pessimistic scenario assumes a second pandemic wave and the return of restrictions that would significantly slow recovery. The consequence would be a fall in working hours of 11.9 percent (340 million full-time jobs).
“The optimistic scenario assumes that workers’ activities resume quickly, significantly boosting aggregate demand and job creation. With this exceptionally fast recovery, the global loss of working hours would fall to 1.2 percent (34 million full-time jobs).
Impact on women
The Monitor also found that “women workers have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic, creating a risk that some of the modest progress on gender equality made in recent decades will be lost, and that work-related gender inequality will be exacerbated.
The ILO document said: “The severe impact of COVID-19 on women workers relates to their over-representation in some of the economic sectors worst affected by the crisis, such as accommodation, food, sales and manufacturing. Globally, almost 510 million or 40 percent of all employed women work in the four most affected sectors, compared to 36.6 percent of men.
“Women also dominate in the domestic work and health and social care work sectors, where they are at greater risk of losing their income and of infection and transmission and are also less likely to have social protection.
“The pre-pandemic unequal distribution of unpaid care work has also worsened during the crisis, exacerbated by the closure of schools and care services,” ILO added.